@normalized-db/core

Core-module for related 'normalized-db'-libraries providing common models and utility functions as well as the `Schema` (implemented with `TypeScript`).

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@normalized-db/core

Core-module for related "normalized-db"-libraries providing common models and utility functions as well as the Schema (implemented with TypeScript).

Versioning

To ease versioning equal major and minor version numbers are used for all modules.

Installation

Install using NPM:

npm install --save @normalized-db/core

Usage

Usage is only useful in combination with one of the feature-modules:

  • normalizer: Normalize JS objects

  • denormalizer: Denormalize JS objects from a normalized data structure

  • data-store Persist normalized data-structures, e.g. to IndexedDB (JS object-database)

Schema

Normalization and denormalization both depend on a schema describing the basic data-structure which should be transformed. A schema is a readonly object which is either created using a SchemaConfig-object or the SchemaBuilder which internally also builds a SchemaConfig-object. The config object must implement the ISchemaConfig-interface.

Types

A schema may consist of three different kinds of object-store "types" or "stores" respectively:

  • _defaults: Default configuration for every object-store.
  • _[storeName]: Types prefixed with an underscore are handled as abstract types. The _defaults-store is also abstract. These stores can be used if two or more concrete stores share some configurations but no instances are needed.
  • [storeName]: Concrete stores which either reuse the defaults only, inherit from an abstract store or another concrete store. Optionally defines or overrides specific configurations.

If a type only needs the defaults define it by [storeName]: true, if it inherits from another store but does not have an own configuration define it by [storeName]: "[parentStore]". More complex configurations may define the following options:

  • parent (string): The abstract / concrete type from which this type should inherit predefined configurations.
  • [required] key (string): The name of a field which contains the unique identifier of this object. The value of this field is used to identify objects of this type. If two objects have the same key they are assumed to be equal. The value must be a ValidKey (number, string or Date).
  • targets (string or IStoreTargetConfig): This is the most important option for (de)normalization. It defines which field of an object contains an object that should be (de)normalized into/from another type. The config value either is a string - then it must be the name of an explicitly declared concrete type or it is a IStoreTargetConfig-object which in return also declares the target type (type-option) and optionally the isArray and cascadeRemoval boolean flags.
  • autoKey (boolean): If set to true, this option tells data stores to automatically generate an unique identifier for new objects without a key.
  • logging (IStoreLogConfig): By using this option you can enable automatic logging for the store's entities. The required mode-field specifies the mode, whereas disabled is used to disable logging at all, simple enables logging but includes only some meta information on the change including store, primary key, type of change (e.g. created or removed) and full basically does the same as simple but it includes the changed object. So deciding whether to use simple or full is equal to making a trade-off between loss of information and a large logging store. By default, logging is disabled for each store which does not explicitly enable it or does not derive another preference from one of its parents. This of course can be changed by setting another mode in the _defaults-store (as it can be seen in the example below). The eventSelection can be optionally used to filter the events which should be logged. IStoreLogConfig-instances can be built by using a StoreLogBuilder. With the optional keys-property logged entities can be filtered by their primary keys. Logging is used by the data-store-module only.

An example for such a ISchemaConfig-object for a simple blog could look like this:

const schemaConfig: ISchemaConfig = {
  _defaults: {
    key: 'id',
    autoKey: true,
    logging: {
      mode: 'simple',
    }
  },
  _authored: {
    targets: {
      author: 'user'
    },
    logging: {
      mode: 'full',
      eventSelection: ['created', 'updated', 'removed', 'cleared']
    }
  },
  role: true,
  user: {
    key: 'userName',
    autoKey: false,
    targets: {
      role: 'role'
    },
    logging: {
      eventSelection: ['created', 'removed'],
      keys: ['admin', 'mmuster']
    }
  },
  article: {
    parent: '_authored',
    targets: {
      comments: {
        type: 'comment',
        isArray: true,
        cascadeRemoval: true
      }
    }
  },
  comment: '_authored'
}

A possible input for an array of articles looks like this:

const articles: Article[] = [
  {
    id: 1,
    title: 'Title 1',
    author: {
      userName: 'user1',
      email: 'user1@mail.com',
      role: {
        id: 1,
        label: 'role1'
      }
    },
    comments: [
      {
        id: 1,
        text: 'Comment 1',
        author: {
          userName: 'user2',
          email: 'user2@mail.com',
          role: {
            id: 2,
            label: 'role2'
          }
        }
      }
    ]
  },
  {
    id: 2,
    title: 'Title 2',
    author: {
      userName: 'user2',
      email: 'user2@mail.com',
      role: {
        id: 2,
        label: 'role2'
      }
    }
  },
  {
    id: 3,
    title: 'Title 3',
    author: {
      userName: 'user3',
      email: 'user3@mail.com',
      role: {
        id: 3,
        label: 'role3'
      }
    },
    comments: [
      {
        id: 2,
        text: 'Comment 2',
        author: {
          userName: 'user2',
          email: 'user2@mail.com',
          role: {
            id: 2,
            label: 'role2'
          }
        }
      },
      {
        id: 3,
        text: 'Comment 3',
        author: {
          userName: 'user3',
          email: 'user3@mail.com',
          role: {
            id: 3,
            label: 'role3'
          }
        }
      }
    ]
  }
]

which then can be normalized using normalizer.apply('article', articles). This will result in:

const normalizer = new NormalizerBuilder()
  .withSchemaConfig(schemaConfig)
  .build();

const result = normalizer.apply('article', articles);
console.log(result);

// prints…
const output: NormalizedData = {
  role: [
    {
      id: 1,
      label: 'role1'
    },
    {
      id: 2,
      label: 'role2'
    },
    {
      id: 3,
      label: 'role3'
    }
  ],
  user: [
    {
      userName: 'user1',
      email: 'user1@mail.com',
      role: 1
    },
    {
      userName: 'user2',
      email: 'user2@mail.com',
      role: 2
    },
    {
      userName: 'user3',
      email: 'user3@mail.com',
      role: 3
    }
  ],
  article: [
    {
      id: 1,
      title: 'Title 1',
      author: 'user1',
      comments: [1]
    },
    {
      id: 2,
      title: 'Title 2',
      author: 'user2'
    },
    {
      id: 3,
      title: 'Title 3',
      author: 'user3',
      comments: [2, 3]
    }
  ],
  comment: [
    {
      id: 1,
      text: 'Comment 1',
      author: 2
    },
    {
      id: 2,
      text: 'Comment 2',
      author: 2
    },
    {
      id: 3,
      text: 'Comment 3',
      author: 3
    }
  ]
}

Design considerations

Note that normalization is not the solution to everything. In fact, in many cases it would absolutely redundant to normalize an object. Take the user.role from the example above - the roles are basically just a string, the only object which ever contains a role object is a user and probably it is not possible to edit the role's name. In such a case the normalization overhead probably is not worth it. Basically it is recommended to design the schema rather passive, less can be more, so if normalizing a field is not necessary then do not normalize.

If you find any bugs or have a feature request, please open an issue on github!

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