@martin_hotell/rea-di

Dependency injection for React done right. Hierarchical injection on both component and service layer powered by injection-js (Angular DI framework)

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rea-di

Dependency injection for React done right. Hierarchical injection on both component and service layer powered by injection-js (Angular DI framework without Angular dependency 💪) 🖖

rea-di [pronounced "Ready" 🤙]

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Build Status NPM version Downloads Standard Version styled with prettier Conventional Commits

Installing

yarn add @martin_hotell/rea-di

# install peer dependencies
yarn add react injection-js tslib

# install Reflect API polyfill
yarn add @abraham/reflection

Note:

You need a polyfill for the Reflect API.

We highly recommend tiny reflection polyfill ( 3kB only ! )

Also for TypeScript you will need to enable experimentalDecorators and emitDecoratorMetadata flags within your tsconfig.json

Getting started

Let's demonstrate simple usage with old good Counter example:

Edit counter-example

import React, { Component } from 'react'
import { render } from 'react-dom'

import { Injectable } from 'injection-js'
import { DependencyProvider, Stateful } from '@martin_hotell/rea-di'

// we create injectable and state aware service

type State = Readonly<typeof initialState>
const initialState = {
  count: 0,
}

@Injectable()
export class CounterService extends Stateful<State> {
  readonly state = initialState

  increment() {
    this.setState((prevState) => ({ count: prevState.count + 1 }))
  }
  decrement() {
    this.setState((prevState) => ({ count: prevState.count - 1 }))
  }
  incrementIfOdd() {
    if (this.state.count % 2 !== 0) {
      this.increment()
    }
  }

  incrementAsync() {
    setTimeout(() => this.increment(), 1000)
  }
}

export class Counter extends Component {
  render() {
    return (
      // We request to inject CounterService instance, which will be provided by closest parent DependencyProvider(Injector) (in our case we created parent <DependencyProvider/>)
      // ☝️ `values` prop is an tuple of Tokens(tokens used to register provider to injector)
      // Now our injectables will be available within render prop, via positional arguments,  `[CounterService] -> ((counterService) => (...)`
      <Inject values={[CounterService]}>
        {(counterService) => (
          <p>
            Clicked: {counterService.state.count} times
            <button onClick={() => counterService.increment()}>+</button>
            <button onClick={() => counterService.decrement()}>-</button>
            <button onClick={() => counterService.incrementIfOdd()}>
              Increment if odd
            </button>
            <button onClick={() => counterService.incrementAsync()}>
              Increment async
            </button>
          </p>
        )}
      </Inject>
    )
  }
}

render(
  // We create Parent Injector via Provider component which will resolve CounterService and thus will make it available within whole app tree
  <DependencyProvider providers={[CounterService]}>
    <Counter />
  </DependencyProvider>,
  document.getElementById('root')
)

For more examples, see the following examples section 👀

Examples

Go checkout examples !

API

rea-di API is tiny 👌. It starts and ends with components and javascript, 2 core things that we love React for ❤️

There are 2 components for registering and injecting services and 2 HoC(High order components) which just leverage former under the hood (if that's your preferred way of composition) and 1 service abstract class to make services state aware.

DependencyProvider<{providers: Provider[], children: ReactElement}>

Example:

<DependencyProvider providers={[ServiceOne]}>
  ...your tree...
</DependencyProvider>

DependencyProvider.enableDebugMode(): void

  • renders injector tree with registered providers in your view

Inject<{values: Type[], children(...injectables)=>ReactNode}>

<Inject values={[ServiceOne]}>{(serviceOne)=>...}</Inject>

NOTE: if you need inject multiple providers you have to use tuple as TS won't properly infer array to strictly typed tuple:

<Inject values={tuple(ServiceOne, ServiceTwo)}>
  {(serviceOne, serviceTwo) => <>...</>}
</Inject>

withDependencyProvider<T extends Provider[]>(...providers:T): React.ComponentClass

class Root extends Component {
  /*...*/
}

const EnhancedRoot = withDependencyProvider(ServiceOne, ServiceTwo)(
  MyParentComponent
)

withInjectables<TokenMap extends {[propName:string]: Type}>(tokenMap): React.ComponentClass

// you can see that injectValuesMap is config object for withInjectables HoC,
// which will map those keys to your component props with proper instance registered by provided Token within injector
const injectValuesMap = { serviceOne: ServiceOne }

class MyComponentWithInjectables extends Component<typeof injectValuesMap> {
  /*...*/
}

const EnhancedComponent = withInjectables(injectValuesMap)(
  MyComponentWithInjectables
)

const Tree = () => <EnhancedComponent />

Stateful<S>

Abstract class which implements setState on your service class. If you wanna handle state within your service you need to extend from this Base class and implement state, exactly like you would with React.Component

const initialState = {
  count: 0,
}

@Injectable()
class CounterService extends Stateful<typeof initialState> {
  readonly state = initialState
  inc() {
    this.setState((prevState) => ({ count: prevState.count + 1 }))
  }
  dec() {
    this.setState((prevState) => ({ count: prevState.count - 1 }))
  }
}

tuple<T extends any[]>(...args: T): T

  • helper function to be used within <Inject/> if you need to inject more than 1 injectable

Following will produce type errors as TypeScript will create array of unions instead of tuple type:

<Inject values={[ServiceOne, ServiceTwo]}>
  {/* TS Error */}
  {(
    serviceOne /* $ExpectType ServiceOne | ServiceTwo */,
    serviceTwo /* $ExpectType ServiceTwo | ServiceTwo */
  ) => <>...</>}
</Inject>

By using tuple identity helper, everything works as expected

<Inject values={tuple(ServiceOne, ServiceTwo)}>
  {(
    serviceOne /* $ExpectType ServiceOne */,
    serviceTwo /* $ExpectType ServiceTwo */
  ) => <>...</>}
</Inject>

optional<T extends Type>(Token: T): T | null

  • like @Optional but for component level injection

Marks token as injectable so if it provider with current token will not be registered on component tree it will not throw but return null

<Inject values={tuple(ServiceOne, optional(ServiceTwo))}>
  {(
    serviceOne /* $ExpectType ServiceOne */,
    serviceTwo /* $ExpectType: ServiceTwo | null */
  ) => <>...</>}
</Inject>

NOTE:

don't try to do anything tricky with this. Under the hood original token is being wrapped within an identity function that gets metadata via Reflect.API so we can properly resolve injection without trowing any errors. We just trick type-system to get proper DX and inference for consumer 👉 expect(optional(ServiceTwo)).toEqual(()=>ServiceTwo)

Guides

Building a github user search

Let's build a simple github user search app, by leveraging rea-di.

This is what we're gonna build: github User Search app

And this is how DI tree will look like github User Search app DI tree

For complete implementation/demo checkout examples

  1. Implementing GithubUserService

We need implement our service, which is a pure javascript class with to encapsulate logic for fetching user data from github. To make it work with rea-di and injection-js we need to annotate our class with @Injectable() decorator. Now we can leverage dependency injection via constructor injection, and inject an HttpClient axios-http, which will be used for XHR.

We will implement 3 methods, for getting user info, user repos and one aggregated method for getting both.

// user.service.ts
import { HttpClient } from '@martin_hotell/axios-http'
import { Injectable } from 'injection-js'

import { GithubUserRepo } from './repo.model'
import { GithubUser } from './user.model'

const endpointPath = 'users'

@Injectable()
export class GithubUserService {
  constructor(private http: HttpClient) {}
  getRepos(username: string) {
    return this.http.get<GithubUserRepo[]>(`${endpointPath}/${username}/repos`)
  }

  getUserInfo(username: string) {
    return this.http.get<GithubUser>(`${endpointPath}/${username}`)
  }

  getGithubInfo(username: string) {
    return Promise.all([
      this.getRepos(username),
      this.getUserInfo(username),
    ]).then(([repos, bio]) => ({ repos: repos.data, bio: bio.data }))
  }
}
  1. Wiring our app DI capabilities to React component tree via rea-di

Now let's wire our service with our React component tree:

// app.tsx
import React, { Component } from 'react'
import { registerHttpClientProviders } from '@martin_hotell/axios-http'
import { DependencyProvider } from '@martin_hotell/rea-di'

import { Profile } from './components/profile'
import SearchUser from './components/search-user'
import { GithubUserService } from './user.service'

export class App extends Component {
  render() {
    return (
      <div>
        <h1>GitHub User Search 👀</h1>
        <DependencyProvider
          provide={[
            registerHttpClientProviders({ baseURL: 'https://api.github.com' }),
            GithubUserService,
          ]}
        >
          <>
            <SearchUser />
            <Profile />
          </>
        </DependencyProvider>
      </div>
    )
  }
}

Quite a lot happening there, let's go step by step

So we are using <DependencyProvider> component which has one prop, provide. We need to pass here all providers that we wanna make available for all descendant components on the tree from our injector.

In our case we need to register 2 Providers:

  • registerHttpClientProviders - function provided by axios-http, which registers all internal providers and makes HttpClient injectable
  • GithubUserService - our injectable service class
<DependencyProvider
  provide={[
    registerHttpClientProviders({ baseURL: 'https://api.github.com' }),
    GithubUserService,
  ]}
>
  {/*...*/}
</DependencyProvider>

With that solved, we can inject service instances anywhere in our component tree via <Inject/> component or via withInjectables() High order component.

  1. Implementing SearchUser component

This component will handle our search form. On submit it will call methods from GithubUserService instance.

With that said, we need to inject GithubUserService to our component. We could use <Inject> within our render but for this case we wanna use GithubUserService outside render so HoC is a great candidate for this use case. And of course it's gonna be "injected" via React component injection, which is nothing else than old good React props ✌️.

type Props = {
  userService: GithubUserService
}

export class SearchUser extends React.Component<Props> {
  private usernameRef = createRef<HTMLInputElement>()
  private submitBtnRef = createRef<HTMLButtonElement>()

  render() {
    return (
      <form onSubmit={(ev) => this._handleSubmit(ev)}>
        <input
          type="text"
          placeholder="github username..."
          ref={this.usernameRef}
        />
        <button type="submit" ref={this.submitBtnRef}>
          Search Github
        </button>
      </form>
    )
  }

  _handleSubmit(ev: SyntheticEvent<HTMLFormElement>) {
    ev.preventDefault()
    const username = this.usernameRef.current!
    const btn = this.submitBtnRef.current!

    // disable form on submit
    btn.disabled = true
    username.disabled = true

    // now we can fetch bio and repos of selected user by calling injected userService.getGithubInfo
    this.props.userService
      .getGithubInfo(username.value)
      .then(({ bio, repos }) => {
        btn.disabled = false
        username.disabled = false
        username.value = ''
      })
  }
}

// last step is to wire our SearchUser to DI container
export default withInjectables({ userService: GithubUserService })(SearchUser)

Hmm but something is missing here right ? We wanna save our fetched data... somewhere ! we could indeed store it within parent component or even in this one, but because we're already using DI, we can make our GithubUserService stateful. Let's do that first!

All we need to do to make injectable service stateful, is to extend it with Stateful generic abstract class, which implements setState method (the same like React.Component)

// user.service.ts
import { Injectable } from 'injection-js'
import { Stateful } from '@martin_hotell/rea-di'

// (1) we define State from implementation (the same pattern as you're used to from React)
type State = Readonly<typeof initialState>
const initialState = {
  username: '',
  bio: null as GithubUser | null,
  repos: null as GithubUserRepo[] | null,
}

// (2) now we extend our class WithState<State>
@Injectable()
export class GithubUserService extends Stateful<State> {
  // (3) we set service our state
  readonly state = initialState

  constructor(private http: HttpClient) {
    super()
  }

  // (4) and we implement `setActiveUser` method which will update our internal service state
  setActiveUser(user: Partial<State>) {
    this.setState((prevState) => ({ ...prevState, ...user }))
  }

  getRepos(username: string) {
    /*...*/
  }

  getUserInfo(username: string) {
    /*...*/
  }

  getGithubInfo(username: string) {
    /*...*/
  }
}

With our stateful GithubUserService we can update SearchUser._handleSubmit method:

// search-user.tsx
export class SearchUser extends Component<Props> {
  _handleSubmit(ev: React.FormEvent<HTMLFormElement>) {
    ev.preventDefault()
    const username = this.usernameRef.current!
    const btn = this.submitBtnRef.current!

    // disable form on submit
    btn.disabled = true
    username.disabled = true

    // first we set just username to our service state
    // this will trigger re-render on every component that injects userService
    this.props.userService.setActiveUser({ username: username.value })

    // now we can fetch bio and repos of selected user by calling injected userService.getGithubInfo
    this.props.userService
      .getGithubInfo(username.value)
      .then(({ bio, repos }) => {
        // we store resolved data (bio and repos) to our service state
        this.props.userService.setActiveUser({ bio, repos })

        // we enable our form again
        btn.disabled = false
        username.disabled = false
        username.value = ''
      })
  }
}

Now we need to implement the last part of our app. Rendering the User Profile Bio and Repos.

  1. Implementing Profile component

Our GithubUserService is stateful, so all we need to do is to inject it within our Profile component. This time we don't need to access userService outside render so using <Inject> is the perfect candidate for wiring up Profile with our DI tree.

// profile.tsx
import { Inject } from '@martin_hotell/rea-di'
import React, { Component } from 'react'

import { GithubUserService } from '../user.service'
import { Repos } from './repos'
import { UserProfile } from './user-profile'

export class Profile extends Component {
  render() {
    return (
      // (1) we specify token tuple/array `GithubUserService`, with which we're saying what instance is gonna be injected  within children function arguments
      <Inject values={[GithubUserService]}>
        {(userService) => {
          // (2) we got our userService, and we use destructuring on its state
          const { username, repos, bio } = userService.state

          // (3) we render only when both bio and repos have been fetched and stored within our service instance
          if (bio && repos) {
            return (
              <div className="row">
                <div className="col sm-12 md-6">
                  <UserProfile username={username} bio={bio} />
                </div>
                <div className="col sm-12 md-6">
                  <Repos username={username} repos={repos} />
                </div>
              </div>
            )
          }

          // if username only is set, that means we are in submitting phase
          if (username) {
            return `Loading... ${username}`
          }
        }}
      </Inject>
    )
  }
}

And that's it!

For complete implementation/demo checkout examples


State management within service layer

For developers with Angular background, storing state within Service is a must have. While that makes sense in Angular ( because handling state within Angular component is a mess ) in React this abstraction isn't needed that much as React component state is mostly sufficient for that purpose.

With rea-di, you can handle state on service layer although we encourage you to handle state internally in Component.state or via some store state management library ( like Redux ).

For those familiar with Unstated, with rea-di, you got all unstated library power at your disposal within service layer and much more 🌻.

Ok let's look at our previous example. We handle users array state within Users Component. We can make our UserService state aware and make it handle our state and with that remove any state from our components.

// app/services.ts
import { Stateful } from 'rea-di'

// (1) we define State type and initialState which needs to be implemented when we extend WithState
type State = typeof Readonly<initialState>
const initialState = {
  users: null as User[] | null,
}

@Injectable()
// (2) WithState<T> is a generic base class which provides `protected setState()` method and forces you to implement state within your service
export class UserService extends Stateful<State> {
  // constructor Injection
  constructor(private httpClient: HttpClient, private logger: Logger) {
    // (3) we need to call super() as we are extending BaseClass
    super()
  }

  // (4) we implement our service state
  readonly state: State = initialState

  getUsers(): Promise<User[]> {
    this.logger.log('get users fetch started')

    return this.httpClient.get('api/users').then((response)=>{
      // (5) when http finishes, we update our service state.
      // This state will work exactly like React state and will re-render components where it's used
      this.setState(()=>({users:response}))
    })
  }
}

With that implemented, we can update our Users component ( emove state handling from it)

// app/users.tsx
type Props = {
  service: UserService
}

class Users extends Component<Props> {
  render() {
    const { service } = this.props
    return (
      <div>
        {service.state.users ? (
          'Loading users...'
        ) : (
          <UserList users={service.state.users} />
        )}
      </div>
    )
  }
  componentDidMount() {
    // we only trigger HTTP call via our injected service. State will be handled and updated internally in that service
    this.props.service.getUsers()
  }
}

Writing tests

Testing belongs to one of the main areas where DI framework shines!

How to test our components with rea-di ?

You just provide mocks of your services for both unit and integration tests and you're good to go 👌. Old good React ❤️

import { DependencyProvider } from 'rea-di'

const DATA: Users[] = [{ name: 'Martin' }, { name: 'John' }]

class UserServiceMock extends UserService {
  getUsers = jest.fn(() => this.setState(() => ({ users: DATA })))
}

describe('<Users/> Unit Test', () => {
  it('should fetch users and render them', () => {
    const service = new UserServiceMock()
    const wrapper = mount(<Users service={service} />)

    expect(service.getUsers).toHaveBeenCalled()
    expect(service.state).toEqual({ users: DATA })
    expect(wrapper.find(UserList)).toBe(true)
  })
})

describe('<UsersModule/> Integration Test', () => {
  it('should fetch users and render them', () => {
    const wrapper = mount(
      // we create new ChildInjector with same token, just changing the Implementation that's gonna be instantiated ;)
      <DependencyProvider
        providers={[{ provide: UserService, useClass: UserServiceMock }]}
      >
        <UserModule />
      </DependencyProvider>
    )

    expect(service.getUsers).toHaveBeenCalled()
    expect(service.state).toEqual({ users: DATA })
    expect(wrapper.find(UserList)).toBe(true)
  })
})

Publishing

Execute yarn release which will handle following tasks:

  • bump package version and git tag
  • update/(create if it doesn't exist) CHANGELOG.md
  • push to github master branch + push tags
  • publish build packages to npm

releases are handled by awesome standard-version

Pre-release

  • To get from 1.1.2 to 1.1.2-0:

yarn release --prerelease

  • Alpha: To get from 1.1.2 to 1.1.2-alpha.0:

yarn release --prerelease alpha

  • Beta: To get from 1.1.2 to 1.1.2-beta.0:

yarn release --prerelease beta

Dry run mode

See what commands would be run, without committing to git or updating files

yarn release --dry-run

Check what files are gonna be published to npm

  • yarn pack OR yarn release:preflight which will create a tarball with everything that would get published to NPM

Tests

Test are written and run via Jest 💪

yarn test
# OR
yarn test:watch

Style guide

Style guides are enforced by robots, I meant prettier and tslint of course 🤖 , so they'll let you know if you screwed something, but most of the time, they'll autofix things for you. Magic right ?

Style guide npm scripts

#Format and fix lint errors
yarn ts:style:fix

Generate documentation

yarn docs

Commit ( via commitizen )

  • this is preferred way how to create conventional-changelog valid commits
  • if you prefer your custom tool we provide a commit hook linter which will error out, it you provide invalid commit message
  • if you are in rush and just wanna skip commit message validation just prefix your message with WIP: something done ( if you do this please squash your work when you're done with proper commit message so standard-version can create Changelog and bump version of your library appropriately )

yarn commit - will invoke commitizen CLI

Troubleshooting

Licensing

MIT as always

If you find any bugs or have a feature request, please open an issue on github!

The npm package download data comes from npm's download counts api and package details come from npms.io.